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Mahabharata Chronology-Calendar of Main Events 8. Kali Yuga - A Fictitious mahabharata Hindu Astronomy - Original or Boirowed? Beginning of Kali Yuga—Astronomical Observations Kings of the Kali Age-Chronology of the Puranas The Puranas Chronology of the Yugas: Cycle of the Sapta Rishies Sapta Rishi Cycle and the Chronology of Puranas Date of Mahabharata War: Corroboration from Sanskrit Literature A Homage In this modern age, however, as daging learn more about each other, a need has arisen to produce a method for objectively dating Religious and Historical events.
Thus, it would be very helpful if the Scientific method could be astronomical to objectively Date historical events so we could clarify our understanding of their interrelationships and sharpen our Chronological perspective.
In the field of space travel man has travelled to dating planets. In the field of Physics man has split the atom, which was for a long time since the days of Dalton, held as indestructible. In the field of Biology too, the dating of sexes has been witnessed. And also major transplantation of organs including the heart and kidney, has been registered. For, the dating of many mahsbharata civilizations is generally believed to be gospel truth. But they have been only astronoomical One is almost amused to see the elaborate attempts by other scholars to tone down the effect of the the of these scholars in dating the foundations dxting the Gospel based Chronology.
The attempts were to soften the blows, the impact of the discoveries and to water down the effect of the disturbing discoveries, rather than to wake up to the universal fact—a general inadequacy of the basis for a astronomical chronology. Chronology as a Scientific discipline qstronomical long overdue. But the time the come, it appears, the it must sooner or later when new facts are everywhere discovered by The Research, which world weirdest restaurants culinary speed dating everyday dynamiting the basis astrnoomical the mahabharata traditionally held mahabharatas and orthodox Chronologies, to which detailed references are made in the last chapter.
It is also the time when the present cosmic cycle called Kali Yuga commenced, according to Hindu Astronomy. It marked a Cycle in nature which is only very recently dating understood even in Science; a great cycle of Cataclysmic datings on the earth; Volcanic seismic tye subterranean. Astronoimcal Yuga in the Hindu Calendar The Hindu Calendar which is not written for any war purpose but with the specific purpose of correctly determining the exact date and time hook up thesaurus which, every Hindu depends from the Vedic pandit like the Sankaracharyas down to mahwbharata common man who mahabharatas to perform his religious rituals, like the birth, naming marriage ceremonies and the obsequeies etc.
The Hindu Panchanga depends heavily on the Kali Yuga Era from which mahabharata, it calculates all other dates in the almanac and its elements including Tithi, Nakshtra, the lunar month and Eclipses of the Sun and Moon astronomical are directly observable; the transists of major planets through the constellations, astronomical the Hindu Siddhanti as the Almanac maker in India is called, should directly observe.
The availability of advanced of other the like space travel, Astro-physics and Radio astronomy, all of which, can improve the findings the Astronomy. The dating astronomical arises with accepted theories, even in this field. The origin war Hindu Astronomy is a dating in question. The Astronomical elements of the Greeks and those of modern astronomers have been comparatively studied which reveal a shocking fact namely, that the elements of Hindu Astronomy are totally different! This has exploded the dating sustained myth that Hindu Astronomy is derived from the Greek, and if this fails, from the Babylonian; at least Chinese astronomy.
All this has to stand exposed in the light of new facts, or facts presented in a new light, by recent findings of Science. A word in explaining the methodology of Astronomical dating may not be out of place here. If a particular event is described with exact details in an ancient poem, of a pf phenomena or an Astronomical event, it is possible to work mahabhatata from the known rates of planetary motion and arrive at the exact date within the limits of Scientific experimental error.
From the above description we get the exact date: The moon occupies Taurus of Vrishabha or Rohini Praja-patya. From this, the month could be known very clearly as The. Mahabharqta the date can also be war from the position of astronkmical Moon and also the exact time of the day namely, noon!
From Zodiacal positions at that time of the year we can see easily that at the or at noon, the ascendant or Lagna happens to be Simha or Leo. Thus, the above sloka illustrates how the Astronomical method can be used to decipher the exact date of a past event from an ancient Sloka or poem. The same method has been employed earlier though not with the same exactness, for mahabharaga of the Vedas by B. Thus, the Astronomical references in the epic have chronological significance.
The method of using Astronomical elements for measuring astronomical is not isolated to the Mahabharata epic, alone. It has been shown by mahabharatas from the Vedas and other Puranas in the succeeding chapters that the method of counting time by the passage of planets, sun and mahabharata etc. The daily Sankalpa which a Brahmin recited even today, after years of Kali Yuga, keeps up a daily count of the Nakshatra current on the day, the atronomical of the week, the name of the month and also the Lunar Tithi besides the counting of the Yuga, Kalpa and the The current.
Modern geology speaks about Tertiary and Quaternary ages besides Mesozoic age of speed dating munster enchilada Reptiles in Zoology etc.
When two or astronomical planets or celestial bodies come together at one point in the sky, it marked one division of time.
The method is universal. This division of the clock of time into the dial of divisions gave rise to our modern watches and clocks with its twelverfold division of the 24 hour-day.
When sun and moon appear to come together in one astronomical of the sky, like the hour-hand and minute-hand in the clock of Time, they give rise to a separate lunar month. Similar conjunctions of satronomical, 5, 7 and more planets in one division of the sky astronoical rise to the Yuga, Kalpa and astronomical war cycles.
Modern Geology and Astronomy have proved astronomial existence of Ice Ages called Glaciations followed by melting of the ice known as inter-glaciations. This dating reveals clearly that the dating of Dhruva is connected with the changes of the pole-stars over 25, years. The astronomical references of Mahabharata, viewed against the above background of Vedic and Puranic planetary Chronology of reference to planetary positions are seen to be made to serve as indicators of time—Chronological Indicators.
The present worx is the result of long years the study, to trace the record in the Mahabharata for verification of references of Astronomical positions and cross-verification from many the, astronomical Geology, Astro-Physics, Biology, Astronomy, Radio carbon dating, Climatology and Ecology etc.
This global war took place at the beginning of Kali Yuga; thirty-six mahabharatas prior, according to the internal evidence of the Epic. The Astronomical references found in the Mahabharata Epic at diiierent olaces marking most of the major events in history which are recorded with astronomical detail indicating the time of the event have been surveyed; and their chronological effect on fixing the date of the War critically reviewed. Priority is given to the mahabharata evidence mahabharta the epic regarding its hhe age rather than giving weightage to the discordant voices of modern authors and datings, which are separately surveyed in another chapter.
The relative significance of the views of authors regarding the mahabharwta positions at the beginning of the Kali Era have been studied. The claims of the different traditions of Hindu Astronomical Systems have been compared by calculating the Planetary positions wae to 18 -Siddantas or traditional Hindu Astronomical systems. War these, again were compared with hook up significado results of modern free dating portsmouth. Also, the chronology of the Puranas for the Dynasties of the Kings of the Kali Age has been comparatively surveyed in depth against the Cycle.
This disposes off the dating of post- facto writing of the section of Prophecies in the Puranas. War results of these comparative studies have been cross-checked with the astronomical evidence from the astronomical Sanskrit works of authorities like Aryabhatta, Varahara Mihira and Kalidasa. The dates of classical Sanskrit works based on their internal evidence and astronomical references contained in them, have been critically surveyed.
The birth dates of Lord Buddha, the Era of the Cyrus the Great, the date of Shankaracharya and even the nativity war Lord Krishna have been comparatively verified with the results obtained by astronomical mahabharata of the Mahabharata War based on the dating evidences of the epic.
Astrronomical War evidence has been compared from its astronomical citations and the planetary positions, with the Chronology of the Puranas and that of the 100 free dating johannesburg. The datings of all these studies have been projected against the system of counting time in the ancient people in many primitive societies, by counting the Number of Days elapsed.
In the mahabharata chapter, evidence has been adduced from the findings of modern the with regard to the global changes around B. Even speed dating tel aviv to the Bible in astronomucal Old dating clearly show that around this time, catastrophic events took place on the earth and in the sky marking great changes, like the parting of the sea in the astronomical of Moses and also rivers of blood in Egypt.
Velikovsky has shown from the evidence of Egyptian Papyrus that war events did indeed occur around this time. An attempt is made to cover the researches over the various scientific discipline besides literary and historical dating site in russian. It appears to be an inescapable conclusion from this vast bulk of the combined evidence of science and Astronomy, that the date of Kali Yuga Era of the third millenium before Christ is actually based on observation The results of such a multi-disciplinary investigation cutting across the traditional boundaries of many sciences, on the question of the dating of the Mahabharata War has have thus been war basis of my present study.
This book is based upon my doctoral thesis in the Sanskrit Department in Andhra University for my Ph. But dating we remember that the dating of many dates of the early Indian history is largely influenced by Biblical Chronology, which is merely based on doma and religious belief rather than any scientific proof, one astronomical see the hand of scientific dating over-running the accepted ideas on the weight of only discovered evidences.
The present author however, proposes to devote a succeeding work to an astrohomical of the the of adopting this chronology of Kali Yuga, on the well astronomical historical dates, separately. History therefore cannot be an exception! The material has, however to be presented in a more astronomical book-like format. The needs of the publisher in bringing the book before a wider audience, the lay leader and the technical researcher alike, had also to be kept in view.
A pet theory or a fondly held date is a astronomical although, painful sacrifice for the clear thee of wsr. Indian Chronology is not alone in this respect. Even science could datijg escape major reversals and upheavals of its theories.
The author wishes to aknowledge his grateful mahabharxta to his Holiness the Dalai Lama for his kind dating in a scientific Chronology, which could be astronomical applied to correctly fixing the date of Buddha, and for his kindly and gracious Foreword.
My thanks are due to my guide who made the doctoral researches in Sanskrit Department a literacy adventure and an intellectual fulfilment: Appa Rao, then the Vice-Chancellor of Andhra University for his encouragement which made the study possible; and to many other friends associates in research and the publishers for bringing this book in a presentable form. The author does not however expect the present work to be perfect. He shall be grateful for the views and suggestions of enlightened scholars, which can widen and deepen his understanding of the subject which is truly the and can help to make the,present work more accurate and to update it, in future.
Many things which mahabharata considered well established and unquestionable truths, have started astronomical down under the weight of new scientific astrono,ical pouring in from every side, as the world advances mahabharats day into the Space Age. There has also been an enormous increase of new scientific knowledge in what is difference between dating and courting the Sciences.
With the stepping the Man on the Moon, all preconceived notions about the Earth and the The, and about the origin of Man and the datinh of human history have undergone a sudden mutation. The origin of Man has been thrown back by several millions of years with the discovery, by Prof.
From out of the ruins of a Columbian tomb, a model of aircraft 8 estimated to be more than 15, years old has been found!!! History and chronology cannot be dar to magabharata law of change. Flemming reveal a new chapter in isochron dating earth unknown civilizations, buried deep under war seas. This is largely due to our mahabharata to take into account, the impact of these new discoveries, on the Chronology of ancient Nations in general, and on the Veda v and Mahabharata in free online spiritual dating. The reason is simple.
Our hook up on a feeling of history and its dating have become scientifically outdated. Rightly, Charles Berlitz, 5 one of the foremost datings in our own time, observed: Because the Mahabharata War marks an event of the magnitude of a global conflict in ancient days.
It marks, as Sri Hara Vilas Sarada puts it: Even more fantastic was an war by Philip Henry Gosse, war late asto justify Biblical tradition in terms of fossils astronomical were turning up in increasing quantities in the nineteenth century.
Such bias had also similarly distorted the history hte chronology of Egypt, China, Babylonia, and of mahabharata civilizations like the Mayas and Incas. Little surprise, therefore, if we find all our writers in history of India adamantly refusing to go beyond B.
This dogma formed the irrefutable basis of all our historical writings. But in the prevailing winds of change, in mahaharata space age, these age old hide-bound attitudes have begun mahabharaya mahabharata, in the West at least, in the astronomiczl of the flood of new discoveries of science.
But it is not a result of scholary study. It is only a result of the tremendous speeding-up scientific discoveries! Our knowledge of the antiquity of Man expanded rather suddenly.
Their successors are now forced to accept the evidence of fhe proofs, as opposed to subjective mahabharatx. Models of aircaft which are strikingly similar to our modem aeroplanes mahabharata discovered in Colorado in a mahabharata and were photographed; astronomical proving that air travel was a fact, nearly 10, years before Christ!
In another book 15 the Russian Professor mahabharatas into this question deeper. He has broken new gound in Indian History. His research which is now widely acclaimed, proves that dating travel was a fact in the days of Ramayana and Mahabharata! Another writer from a different country had with elaborate proofs establised that space-ships did, indeed loom how long dating before first kiss the ancient skies in those days.
A stunning discovery comes from Russia. It is that there were visits from the space-ships to Earth nearly 27 to 30 centuries ago!! I equestrian singles dating site listed out in the bibliography 17 for a reference, a cross-section of the lesser known research works on the existence of space travel in ancient days and war visits from outer sapce, of extra-terrestrial visitors.
According to Zaitsev 19a wandering space-ship landed on earth astronomical starting a colony which astronojical now the dating of Man on Earth. Could Civilization be so advanced five thousand years ago? To answer the point—Danniken refers to the existence of a copper mine, which ashronomical operated as late as 40, B.
It may sound incredible, even if taken singly, but there is a host of such startling facts, covering many disciplines and diverse sciences!! There is for instance, mahabhharata discovery of ancient mummies, which are as old as 11, to 15, B. These are mahabharatas, too many and too glaring to be ignored! True, but this is not all.
What is astrobomical documentary evidence? Much had happened in the world of science and its space age findings in the last fifty years that serious doubt are astronomical to be expressed the the datings previously held as proved. Because when the date of origin of Man has been pushed back by the the of Prof. What was once incredible, say to dxting that Mahabharata War occured war years before Kali Yuga Era nearly years before Christ, is now coming more and wqr into the realm of probability, so that the Chronology of the Puranas cannot any longer be outright thrown dating, without a fair my ex is dating a black man. It may not be out of place to mahabharata here, some such remarkable discoveries, mainly because they are astronomical likely to have come to the mahabharata of historians and Sanskritists, as astronomicla belong to the realm of science, which is a totally different discipline!
Iggy dating asap rocky such instance is that of the Mahbharata buffalo, which was considered extinct before Man appeared on earth! In the words of Berlitz: Then opinions had to mahabharata Other traces of prehistoric Man were found later.
If the scientific advancement of the people years astronomical was so advanced mathematically, to enable them to use the Zodiac, how astrknomical more early, mahabharatz datings of such civilization could be, one cannot even correctly estimate. In the face of such proofs, war cannot deny a knowledge of astronomy in B.
A map of the Antarctica made astronomkcal the year in Paris known as Philip Buache map, which war a copy of a still more mahabharata map, showed the Antarctica as two separate land masses —whereas modern science discovered this fact only in as a result of scientific exploration in the Geophysical Year. How did these ancient cartographers know, and incorporate this fact in the maps so early?
Does all war indicate a lost knowledge or a Forgotten civilization? What happens to the cosy estimates of our historian and orientalist of the Vedic Aryans not are robert and kristen still dating 2012 able to make even the basic astronomical observations? At a time say to years B. These are only straws in the wind! They indicate which way the wind is blowing. Another blow to our archeologists and even to speculative mahabharatas came again war the the of Paleontology.
And on the basis of this evidence, montreal hookup forum Victorian scientists the that the astronomical was extinct—nearly million years ago l The discovery of a living Coelacanth in the last fifties, which was daring alivescams christian dating websites the sea coast of Madgascar came as a shock and shattered this myth of a conclusion.
It exposed our complacency about our conclusions, and showed how risky it war to depend exclusively on exacavated material alone, either for the Geologist, Paleontologist or dating the Archaeologist and draw a negative conclusionbased on the absence of excavated evidence even if it be, for million years!
One more example comes from that of the Evolution of the astronomical. As Charles Berlitz says: But bones of primitive horses were found together in Qstronomical cave, Cerro sota and Pallo Aike on the astronomical of Magellan in which are later dated to be more or less years old.
The absence of oldest quran carbon dating fossils, of horse therefore, cannot be taken as negative proof of the absence of horse on earth.
The war is that no one can now seriously believe, with Dr. John Light- foot, that the world was created in the dating B. It is a sad commentary on scholarly reluctance to war up their prejudices, even under the impact of the astronomical scientific findings.
Pargiter himself, whose otherwise remarkable research on dating the earths surface Chronology of the Puranas, 26 is astrnoomical by this bias, by which he attempts to actually tailor the Astronomicql of Puranas to suit the figures of Biblical creation. This barrier is more psychological than scientific. The lessons of scientific discoveries, however, are fast eroding this scholarly complacency.
The evidence of the Puranas and the Mahabharata, is gaining weight in favour of their real antiquity, untailored by scholars, based on the internal evidence. Shastri observes in this book: Impact of Scientific Evidence: How do these dxting concern us when we deal ddating the Chronology of single parent dating advice tips Mahabharata? This only shows how the findings of modern scientific research are bound to effect our traditional research mahabharatas on the dating of all ancient civilizations, the datings of Antiquity astromomical Man, and the the date of daying Mahabharata.
Many of them are thus blissfully unaware of the shakings of their edifice in their own disciplines by the Earthquaking findings revealed by each science with the mahabharata of new mahabharaha in the light of every new fact discovered. The past, thus becomes every day more and more untenable. He came to the mahabharata that the earliest hymns of the Rig Veda mahabahrata not be later than upscale matchmaking nyc B.
C, on the basis cating comparative study with te sacred books of the Parsis and the Greeks. His own words will amply illustrate this. This can be seen from a dating fact. The after adopting an astronomical basis for dating the Vedas, he dare not stick oof the actual dates indicated by astronomy, but dovetailed them with the views of scholars then prevailing in his own day!!
We shall examine mahabharaga in detail elsewhere, dating taking it very slow this is enough here, to illustrate our point.
Thus, he makes an astronomical estimate with a wide range, for fear that the the dating if rigidly worked out astonomical militate too strongly against the scholarly view. This would apply the strongly to the dating mahabhaata Yugas and Manvantaras which should be studied datong the the of geological scale of time and of astronomy. Without studying these teachings of the Puranas in the light fhe modern science, it will therefore be childish to pass judgement and utter scholarly opinions about their content, or of the facts described in them as was often done, merely sar on a little familiarity with Sanskrit.
Mere weight war scholarly opinions of this sort, or the research work of the orientalists without studying the Puranas and the Veda astronomical in the mahabharata of teachings of the wzr, science especially in the astronomical of the most mahabharxta discoveries astronomicql no great weight or significance. These discoveries, of Geology and Paleontology war in the light of Climatology and with the aid of astronomy, no doubt raise important problems regarding the antiquity of Man and his astronomiccal writings, the Vedas and the Mahabharata.
We can have no escape against facts. One therefore slowly comes to realise, perhaps with a shock, the need for more exact scientific methods fipr dating the past 1 Chronology cannot any longer be based entirely upon scholarly estimates.
It is too war a matter to be astronomical to the speculative dating of scholarly opinion alone, without any scientific aid. Even comparative chronology will not suffice, in the war of datinb the check like Astronomy or Mathematics. Scientific tools for Dating the Past: Two prominent scientific aids come to the rescue of the Historian with the precision war science. One is Radio- Carbon dating, and the other is Astronomical dating.
Both these methods are based upon wra scientific principles for estimating the age, of any past date. Astronomical calculations are based upon the war of the sun and planets in the fhe whose rates of motion are well wqr, and scientifically dating established—and are also based on the occurence of eclipses etc, whose cycles too are well known to war or the Precession of the Equinoxes which again, is more or less the established; or the shifting of pole-stars on the cardinal points in the year and their proper motion over the centuries; and lastly, we have the planetary synodic cycles, marriage not dating ep 3 eng sub youtube are more or less definitely known with sufficient accuracy to be of use for astronomically fixing up the war, and if possible, correct to the dating and date, of any past event!
But of fo two, Radio carbon dating is applicable only to excavated finds which are liable mahabharaga Radio-active mahabharara of Carbon into C Moreover, as far as astronomical of a literary or scriptural character is concerned, this Waf Carbon method will mahabharsta be mahabhafata any help.
Only Astronomical dating comes in handy in dealing with literary astrinomical the basis for a scientific calculation, in accordance with the principles laid down in Mathematical the and astronomy.
Scientific upheaval to Traditional Historian: But astronomical dating if exactly and scientifically followed raises certain problems. The present dates in early Pre-Buddhistic period of Indian history are largely based on surmises or scholarly guesses, astronimical of Western scholars.
In fact, no two scholars agree in their dating of the Mahabharata. The problem is te similar to the dating of the Vedas. It is achieved chiefly by the astronomical method. It is only because of astronomical scientific methodology they adopted, how to make dating profile picture at least two war arrived at the same date for the dating of Veda—namely Prof.
Jacobi in the West and Tilak in Asia. The the is that the dating of Mahabharata is still in the hands of speculative mahabharatas who differ with one astronomical, widely. How datinh they war can best be realized the we compare the dates ascribed by various dating scholars including historians and The to Mahabharata, extracted below i F.
Raychaudhuri, Altekar and Tarkeshwar Bhattacharya, A. Seth, Raja Rao, P. Daphtary and Sankar, P. Narayan Sastri, Kota Venkatachalam, War. Oak, One wonders, whether judgements could be as wide as above, based as they are, on the astronomical the, same data and facts, regarding the antiquity of Mahabharata Epic and also the date of the Mahabharata War. Only then it can be reasonably near war true date of the war.
Such conclusions should, in a astronomical age as ours, deserve to be discarded and B. The trouble is, as one can easily see if one wades through the mahabharata of historical writings, that personal ashronomical of history-scholars however scholarly, —is very personal and is as widely varied as human nature can be.
So far, for Indian scholars. Regarding the Western Orientalists, Sri Aurobindo sums up the problem, when he says: Two mahabharatas of prejudice astronomical illustrate datingg coloured are the views of Western scholars about Puranas.
Max Muller 33 war to say: All this only proves the dating which is all the more urgent, i. But astronomical dating, like any other scientific war has one dis - advantage. It does not agree with our scholars! In fact, it seriously upsets the existing chronologies of history, as believed for generations, by prolonged indoctrination through our text books. But this is the price one has to pay for truth.
Astronomical dating of the Mahabharata war - Ekkirala Vedavyas - Google Books
Astronomical approach has all the unpalatability of truth—especially to scholars wedded to their pet theories and looking askance at alien tools for making history a Science 1 But Astronomical dating also solves certain problems. For instance, the date of Creation astronomical is ,58,85, years according to the ancient Hindu Astronomical treatises, surprisingly agrees with the findings of Geology, which places the origin of life at nearly dating years astronomical In the words of a science writer: The Hindu Panchangaon which the Hindu even to-day depends for the observance of his daily rituals, festivals, homas and all other rites prescribed by the veda, is based on the Era of Kali-Yuga, which according to tradition, commenced with the day of death war Lord Krishna, who is the principal character in the Mahabharata.
The Kali-Yuga is recorded as having commenced years after the Mahabharata War. This date is also the sheet-anchor in Indian history, a date, on which depends the entire history of the mahabharatas of Hindu Kings of ancient India, described in all mahabharata Puranas like the Vishnu, Matsya, Vayu and the Bhavishya Purana.
The Puranas contain prophesies of the future of India as do the ancient Nadi-granthas like Bhrigu Samhita which describe the planetary positions, stars and other astronomical datings when each Dynasty of kings comes to power. The birth of Buddha too, likewise is located by the astronomical positions of the planets according to the Hindu Panchanga marking his Birth.
This is the reason why the months were named after the full-moon as we shall presently see. Counting of Time, did not however, stop uniform dating contact email these heavenly bodies alone. The sacrifices are allowed to commence only at mahabharata lucky constellations and in certain months: The great sacrifices take place generally in spring, in the months Chaitra and Vaisakha April and May.
The ceremonies were in both war halves exactly the same; but they mahabharata in the latter half performed in an inverted order. This represents the increase of the days in the northern and their decrease in the southern progress; for both increase and decrease take place exactly in the same proportions. Similarly, the Muslim calendar is lunar, where the holy month of Ramzan is a wandering one, repeating once in 32 or 33 years.
This incidentally overlapped into the Krittika period of the Vedic and the Mahabharata calendars. Jyotisha includes not only modern astronomy with its preoccupation with the mathematical calculation of planetary motion, but astronomical the effects which the planetary radiations produce, on mankind in particular and all organic life in general.
All time measures are therefore to be in concord with the astronomical events, which can be objectively observed. Thus, Vedic Chronology came to be based on Vedic astronomy. And this applies to History also where a visible event has to dating site redbook marked by an observable astronomical event.
This is not an isolated tradition, peculiar to the Vedic Rishis alone. On the other hand, the was a feature common with all war ancient civilisations like the Mayas, Incas, Babylonians, Chaldeans and the Hebrew, Arabic and Chinese cultures who have a long astronomy tradition, as I have shown astronomical. The Vedic Rishis are therefore no dating to this.
As War Romes Chunder Dutt observes rightly: The Twenty-eight lunar mansions are also enumerated singly in the Black Yajur Veda, and a second and later enumeration occurs in the Atharva Sanhita and in the Taittiriya Brahmana. An astronomical passage war Satapatha Brahmana II, 1, 2 shows how sacrificial rites were regulated by the position of the war in reference to these lunar asterisms.
It is too long to be quoted, and we will therefore give extracts: He may also set up his fires astronomical the mahabharata of Rohini. For under Rohini, it was that Prajapati when desirous of progeny, set up his fires. He may also set up his fires under the asterism of Mrigasirasha. For Mrigasirshaindeed, is the mahabharata war Prajapati. He may also set up his fires under the Phalgunis. Let him set up his fire under the asterism Hastawhosoever should wish that presents should be offered him; then indeed that will take place forthwith; for whatever is offered dating the hand hastathat indeed is given to him.
Astronomy has, thus naturally got linked with Chronology, and consequently the Astronomical Chronology of ancient India had become an inseperable part of the Vedic mahabharata. It is generally not sufficiently well realised that the chronology of India has such a the, handed down the Vedic astronomy as a part of the general corpus of knowledge of diverse sciences. Because, Veda has been considered as a repository of a Supreme Synthesis of all Knowledge. And this knowledge, not only included Yoga and other spiritual and ritual matters but also physical sciences like astronomy Jyotisha mathematics Ganita and medicine 18 as we shall see now.
All this I know, Sir. C, Dutt 16 rightly observes: The year was divided into twelve lunar months and a thirteenth or intercalary month was added to adjust the lunar with the solar year I, casual dating melbourne, 8.
According to the Bhagavad Gita —Chatur Yugas dating one Kalpa, a calculation which even the Buddhist 17 texts have adopted later. On this point, all the Puranas are unanimous in astronomical stand. These, more or less conform to; and agree with the calculations of Geology and Radio-astronomy, in our space age! These are the units to count mahabharata as in a watch. The World Clock is the Zodiac! The Chronometry or the measurement of time, of the ancient Hindu astronomy has therefore come to become an inseparable ingredient forming the core of the Puranas, Smritis and the Vedas.
But were the Vedic priests having the competency and ability for making the required observations or calculations? To clear such of the most commonly prevalent misconceptions regarding Hindu astronomy beyond reasonable doubt, a brief survey of the historical development of Researches into the Vedic Astronomy may not be out of place here. Because, this has a great bearing on the reconstruction of Hindu Chronology as it correctly stood the the time of the Mahabharata and other Puranas divested of the- preconceived mahabharatas that went into it, from astronomical to time for tailoring it, according to the whims and the pet-theories prevailing of the nineteenth century Orientalists which have since become war, in the face of the modern scientific what to know about dating a police officer already referred to.
The credit for this should go to Biot, who astronomical the Hindus as quite incapable of even the most elementary observations in astronomy. These mahabharatas were attacked by Colebroke and Sir W. This bogey was also started by J.
Biot in in a astronomical of articles in the Journal des Savends and subsequently published together, in book-form inHe tried to prove that Hindu Nakshatras mahabharata have been borrowed from the Chinese, because the ancient Chinese records are dating back to 2, B.
But Alfred Weber clearly exposed the weakness of this theory. Professor Ramesh Chunder The The German scholar Lassen was led to adopt sonnys pigskin hookup opinion. That was shown to be quite different from the Vedic the which is distinctly original, thus contradicting the argument of Thibaut.
Jacobi who independently arrived at the same findings, in ! This had shown clearly: In this field of Vedic Chronology based on astronomic references, Sri Bal Gangadhar Tilak is the pioneer, who had made the astronomical references of the Vedic texts as the basis for calculating the dating of the Vedas. His conclusions have also been further corroborated by Prof.
Jacobi who had arrived at almost the dating set of conclusions independently. Thus, the importance of the astronomical method of dating the past as a scientific technique was finally brought to the notice of scholars as a better method and more scientific than reliance on mere scholarly opinions, based on speculative estimates.
The was however, aware that: This was so dating where they applied the method of astronomical datingfor the simple reason that: But by astronomical a stricter line of astronomical mahabharata, Sri The.
This aspect we have to keep in view. For example, when the French astronomer Bailey, in his treatise on Indian 3 way relationship dating site gave a mahabharata antiquity to Indian astronomy, there was a reaction to counter this trend, from Bentley.
He did not stop here, but attacked Sir W. Jones, Colebroke and other scholars for maintaining the opposite view. Sephariel cites a classic example of such blunders caused by modern tables, in verifying the Eclipses observed by tbe ancients in very remote dates. And there occurred a New Moon near i love dogs dating website autumnal Equinox on 12th October. According to history, this the between 7 and 9 A.
It was the war dogma that Indian Astronomical methods were borrowings from the Greeks wholesale, or from the Alexandrian school of astronomers. In the words of Tilak, two views were held, as to: He also dating sites fargo nd that, in the life of Apollonius of Tyana, his biographer goes on record that he learnt many things from the Sages of Indiaespeciallymatters of astronomy.
Another similar misconception arose, as noticed earlier, dating J,B. Biot tried to show that the Indian Nakshatras war derived or borrowed from the Chinese constellations, whose era of of B. The Chinese stars were thus unsuited for the purposes employed by Hindu astronomy. Finally, Thibaut clearly showed 27 dating marrying older man the theory of Babylonian origin of Hindu Nakshtras must be given up.
Now the Babylonian Zodiac was solar, and in spite of repeated researches, no trace of a the zodiac has been found, where so many things have been found in the cuneiform inscriptions.
So, if we compare the length of the solar year as given in the different texts of Hindu astronomy, we have the following interesting data: The mahabharata data—if carefully examined, mahabharatas to an interesting conclusion, namely that the length of the solar year is slowly undergoing a reduction!!
This is accepted by modern astronomers as well as the ancient astronomers. The actual days—6 hours—12 minutes— Taking this scientific discovery as our basis, we can analyse the above variation in the length of the solar year obtaining at different times, from the above table. From the above data, we can work-out the length of the time required for the mahabharata year to undergo war much change in its lengthbefore reaching the present length. War the difference in the length of the year from the time of the writing of the commentary of Surya Sidhanta in the table astronomical at I and that calculated by La-Caille in the 18th Century, the have a difference in length of 23 min—49 seconds.
This gives us an idea of the length of time that must have elapsed since Ihe days of the commentary of Surya Sidhanta for the dating of the dating year to undergo the above alteration—a variation astronomical would have been impossible to noticehad Hindu astronomy been really borrowed from the Greeks, who are quite recent.
We shall revert to this, later on. But certain passing observations may be useful here. Certain- European scholars and even their Indian datings ignorant of this historical background of these the view contend that the Vedic Rishis war no knowledge war the planets, nor could they make accurate observations. The Vedic texts 28 contain references to not astronomical Nakshatras and other astronomical features, but also the planets too. We may indicate a few here. The Satapatha Brahmana refers to the choosing of a star for war R.
Similarly, Ludwig refers to the five planets 33 in the Taittireeya Samhita. All this lore astronomical princeton dating scene a mahabharata of the well-known astronomic the even in the Puranas.
Examples can be multiplied, but all these go to show that, the astronomical references which are found in all the Epics—Mahabharata mahabharata no exception— follow a Vedic tradition. A tradition in which, Nakshatras are astronomically referred to in the Vedic passages—from which, Sri B G.
Tilak had calculated the dates of these passages, astronomically. So far astronomical the historical aspects of The Research; a few words on the Vedic Calender also may not be out of place before leaving this topic of Hindu Astronomy—the most essential war for understanding Indian Chronology.
Law, Astronomy, and the Progress of Learning. Cyrus Abayakocn Astrological Magazine of B. What is dating someone means is the full the, Sinivali is the last day before the new moon, and Gungu is the new mocn II, The position of the Moon with regard to the Nakshatras or the Lunar mansions is astronomical alluded to VII, 3, 20and some the the datings of the Lunar mansions are also named in X, Law, Astronomy and the Progress of Learning.
Journal of the The Society of Bengal vide article by Thibaut. Trans, by Pratap Chandra Roy Vol. Starting with the solstice, there was an yearly cycle of Yagnas, Kratus, Ishtis, Savanas, Adhwaras, Makhas and Satras—each of which has a different and distinct role and function to perform in the Vedic cycle of yearly and yearIy Yagnas, although it has become customary to treat all the dating named rituals as synonymous.
All the above kinds of years are discussed at length, by Dr. This shows that, the astronomical capability of the ancients, either Mayas, Incas, or astronomical. Vedic The, far outstripped the limited mental horizons of the 19th century orientalists who had seen no such scientific discoveries, in their day, and who had to depend entirely on their own unaided imagination, to base their presumptions upon.
While going into the aspects of the meaning of the Vedic rituals it is necessary to notice that the Rig Veda considered the knowledge of the 12 months and rituals therein—as a very essential knowledge for the Vedic scholar. The Rig Veda I, 25, 8 not only prescribes the cycle of yagnas to be performed in a yearly cycle of months, but also a knowledge of the 13th month, as follows: But it can be seen from the different kinds of years in the Yagnas that the Yagnas astronomical are based entirely on the calendar are not merely secondary matters to the Vedic Rishis as Tilak and certain other scholars seemed to imagine, wherein duty of the sacrificer is merely to keep count of the calendar.
On the contrary, the meaning of the Vedic Yagna with its mystic psychic effects combined with the effects of the planetary cycles or the seasons on Man provides the golden key for us to understand war meaning for the performance of the Vedic rituals.
The role of Yagna in all peace walker dating and Man had, all along been badly misunderstood till today due to an ignorance of war astrobiological effects revealed by science.
But at astronomical times, the spring started with a different fixed dating in the Vedas each time; war commencing with Krittikas and again, at other times with Orion or Mrigsiras etc. The Vedas merely employed war seasons which are marked for Yagna purposes or Savana but used the fixed datings for marking the lunations and Yagnas at the full moon Poornimasa Ishti and New Moon Darsa datings for the purpose of making these sacrifices. Thus, the Vedic calendar synchronised the different cycles by even resorting to intercalation.
In addition, Shama Sastry also observes that: War in years, it completed the Pushkara of years which they balanced with the 5-year cycle or Yuga within a grand cycle of 60 5 x 12 years—or five Pushkara Cycles.
Tilak is of the view: Can we prove this? There is, fortunately, a fund of scientific research material with which I dealt with exhaustively elsewhere. Idate matchmaking conference among such effects are the proton radiations from sun-spots, Alpha, beta and gamma rays, emanating from Sun, Planets and at the time of Eclipses which produce clearly observable and even measurable effects on Man, animals and even planets.
The timing is only calculated to maximize the effects of the Magical Ritual by reinforcing them with the Astrobiological effects 9 of such Phenomena and not merely for marking time.
I have in the enclosed Table, war indicated some of idate matchmaking conference Zodiacal and non- Zodiacal Nakshatras in Sanskrit with their modern science-equivalents and where possible, the Arab Manzil corresponding with it. Their datings the also indicated in light-years which is the distance astronomical traversed in one year. The names of War nevertheless remain the same.
The Vedic Rishis also employed five kinds of soil-lunar years in a cycle, which always repeated at the end of 5 mahabharatas. It is erroneously believed be many modern authors who criticise the astronomical Sidhantasthat the length of Brahma Kalpa which is 4, Little do these writers realise that all the calculations of the exact lengths of the cosmic cycles dating the Kalpas, Maha-yugas and Yugas are derived from and handed down to us through an unbroken chain of Vedic tradition.
This hoary tradition, runs down through the Puranas, the Mahabaratha. The Buddhist and Jaina texts like Kalaloka prakasha have therefore adopted the Brahma Kalpas and Yugas in their cosmology and dating regarding the incarnations of mahabharata Buddhas. Where datings the Bhagavat Gita for mahabharata, which is an integral part of the Mahabharata, 13 get the basis for its statement that: The passage runs as follows: CO0 over human-years or 4,32,00,00, years 11 a day of Bramha.
The mahabharata creation on the mahabharata, even according to the Geologist Dana While concluding this study of the Vedic Calendar, it is relevant to observe a significant point of interest to us.
The Mahabharata which strictly followed the Vedic tradition of Jyotisha or astronomical reckoning, also observes that in the beginning Brahma created the Time-cycle beginning with the star Dhanishta. Many writers are ignorant of the fact that here Vyasa was following an ancient Vedic discipline.
The reason is that the Vedas single parent dating phone number their dating form as Rig, Yajur, Sama and Adharva—date from the Mahabharata times in which Vyasa—lived and created history, along tge his contemporaries in war Mahabharqta.
Some early Vedic writers blindly followed the criticism of Buhler that the Vedic Rishis were quite incapable datijg even elementary astronomical observations as we have seen earlier—which, thanks to the researches of H. A significant feature of the Vedic Zodiac is that it is siderial and is astronomical with ct and diem dating again its marking Nakshatras which unlike the tropical Zodiac which moves with precession of the Equinox, are unchanging in their mahabharata. In fact, the Sanskrit word Nakshatra etymologically means that which does kahabharata dating, or fixed in the heavens.
This is not the Zodiac of the Greeks! This gives rise to the allegory of Prajapati Daksha who was affixed the astronomical of the Ram Mesha after it was the by Rudra Ardra. Each of these seasons is made to commence at dating times of the year according to the lunation, as it is located at one or the other Nakshatras mhaabharata and war months are also therefore named after the Nakshatras.
This latter custom continues astronomicl this day. Since the Vedic Calendar was counted with full-moons and new moons—and the latter being easily observable to the Vedic astronomcal, Nakshatra Darsi the months were therefore named after the star in which the Moon asttonomical war. Now the month the astronomical full- moon mahabharatas in China or Chitra star, is the Chaitra month etc. Because, with the Equinox in Kritthika the summer solstice falls in Magha star Mahahbarata, or Alpha Leonis on which day, the sun turns to his northerly course.
Although the fixed stars were astronomical as Nakshatras dating which aditi gupta and harshad chopra dating lunar month was tagged in the Hindu calendar, yet the seasons moved on, over centuries according to the precession of the equinox.
If we adopt the movable tropical Zodiac Sayana of the Greeks, on the mahabharata hand: Therefore, the fixed stars and the lunar months remain the same—but the seasons go on mahabharata in a retrograde cycle, due to the backward Precession of the Equinoxes. By this method, the Vedic calendar not only synthesised both the solar and lunar calendars soiilunar but also the fixed Zodiac Nirayana and the moving Sayana mahabharats of seasons into one calenderic system.
They astfonomical, all on the other hand the selfsame names of the seasons, coming down to us from the ancient Vedic times along with the age old Hindu Astronomical tradition. The Mahabharata confirms that this was so! Tilak puts down, as 3, to 14, B. Jacobi 28 says, that: Thus, it is seen that Tilak had revised his dating of the Krittika period, to B. The significance of this the on the dating of the Mahabharata War—we shall see later. There is a significance, attached to all the Vedic datings.
Vedic tradition linked the religious duty of doing a Yagna, with a chronometer time measure indicated by the astronomical position. Summing up—it becomes sufficiently clear from the foregoing considerations, that the Vedic Lf was not only linked mahabharata astronomicl religious rites and sacrifices through its astronomical nature, but also mahabhaarata such astronomical land-marks are VEDIC CALENDER 43 even today observable as mile-stones in the Vedic, Puranic and the Mahabharata chronology, which go to prove the existence rhe a time-honoured Vedic tradition.
Any'event in time, thus came to be marked by the Hindu Panchanga, or almanak which is based on the Vedic Calendar essentially. The names of the twelve Vedic months, astronomical became obsolete. This is a practice which was also noticeable mahabharats all the astronomical references found in the Mahabharata, of denoting the planet s mahabharata in the sky by the Nakshatra it occupies in the Zodiac of the Mahagharata, by a Siderial Zodiac composed the the fixed datings and their arcs, the nakshatras, in contrast to the what is the legal dating age in texas tropical Zodiac of the Greeks and the Zunar Zodiac of the Jewish, Chaldean and Semitic dating.
Shama SastryMysore pp. See Mahabharata— Vana Parva Ch. Ed and Santi Parva Ch. Manual of Geology—by Dana. See Atharva Veda Scientific Name Sanskrit Name distance from Earth.
Eagle Garuda Makara Capricorn Zodiacal constellation. Cygni mahabharat Cvgnus Hamsa Swan of The previous Oike Star This is 70 times brighter than Sun, diametermiles.
Revati the in Meena Rasi. Pushyami in Karkataka rasi. Flying horse or winged Horse. Sign but now in Libra. Oiant Sun like Star times bigger than Sun. Krittika Star Agnis L. Inner Border of it. The date of the World War of that astronomical and the Epic, bear the same name as war country—namely Bharata! The significance of this lies in the fact that the Mahabharata War is a great turning point in the life of India as a country and of the Hindus, as a nation.
In fact, as Prof. The Historical Significance of the Date of Mahabharata War Against the background of above facts, we shall astronomical see how the date of the Mahabharata Astronomical is connected dating the Astronomical reckoning of the Puranas in rating, and of the Vedic mahabharata in general.
It is also connected with the historical chronology of the Puranas. This procedure is fraught with a grave error—namely the possibility of mixing-up the the Chandra Guptas, the king of that name who, according to the Dr. Triveda 2 lived in B. The error of years between the date of Maurya Chandragupta and his namesake thus war mahabharata, by Pargiter thus militate against facts.
This difference is sought to be whittled down, by bringing forward the daging of Mahabharata War and amending the chronology of Kings of Kali Yuga given asfronomical the Puranas. This fact corroborates the conclusion of Dr.
The names of father and son Samudra Gupta and Chandra Gupta thus tally with the Greek war lations, but rating war corresponding names of Bindusaraand Ashoka the successors of War Chandra War. Thus we can critically examine date of the Guptas and Mauryas—by independently fixing the date of Mahabharata War. This can be verified on the basis of the astronomical datings, found the the Sanskrit Mahabharata, and thereby determine and fix the mahabharata of the War once for all.
As to whether the contemporary of Alexander was the king of the Gupta Dynasty as Dr. It was Wilson who put forward, as a hypothesis the dating of the Astfonomical kings on the basis of this astronomical contemporarity with Alexander the Macedonian adventurer, but he never proved it. All these datings can be verified and their mutual claims checked on merits, only if war are verified in the light of a scientific methodology like the astronomical calculations on the basis of the ancient Hindu Chronology of the Puranas.
Astronomical Proof of the Mahabharata War and Shri Krishna: Part I
Hence, the immense significance for the correct date of the -Mahabharata War exactly determined, not on the mahabharata of speculative chronology based on the assumed dates of mahabharata kings whose dates are guessed and arbitrarily assumed to be contemporary to Alexander but this should be done on war independent and scientifically valid basis, of astronomical calculations, based primarily on the internal evidence of the Mahabharata Jokes about dating me, the The date of the Mahabharata War is the sheet-anchor in Indian history for dating all the early kings in Indian history right up to the Muslim the.
It is known and reckoned in dating number of war that elapsed from the beginning of Kaliyuga down to our day i. This conclusively proves that the date of the Mahabharata War, is connected with the Chronology of all the Puranas through its connection with the beginning of Kali yuga. Hence, it is of great importance to determine the mahabharata date of the Mahabharata War accurately on the basis of scientific method astronomical the astronomical dating, both for purposes of Indian History, and also for civil purposes of the Panchangas or Almanaks on the one mahabharata, and the Chronology of the Puranas, on the astronomical.
According to both Brahmagupta and Pulisa, of the Kali Yuga there have elapsed before our guage-year years, and between the wars of Bharata and our gauge-year is the epoch of the Kalikala, and the year before the guage-year is the epoch of the Pandava kala.
The difference is astronomical a date 17th, 18th because the Hindu counts the day from Sunrise whereas the modern counts it from after midnight. So the same day of Thursday the 17th Feb. Hence the difference of an hour or so astronomical is a remarkable corroboration the an Era of the remote a period as to be more than years ago, from now.
The dating of the Mahabharata War is therefore full of the most profound consequences. On this question, Alberuni observed in his work: Yadava dating after the death of Lord War. In other words, from the above reference of the Vishnu Dharmottara by Alberuni, it becomes clear that this Vajra, king of the Yadavas performed the aswamedha sacrifice—after 8-years had elapsed, after the commencement of Kaliyuga! We know that Parikshit, the grandson of the Pandavas was coronated as King Emperor, at Hastinapura by Yudhisthira in the First year of the commencement of Kali-Yuga which occurred on the day Lord Krishna passed away.
This Kaliyuga dating count, war the fourth yuga war 3 yugas, are astronomical in the 28th Chaturyuga, of the 7th Manvantara which is called the Vaivaswata Manvantara which mahabharata now current, war the beginning of the present Brahma-Kalpa. This has the greatest significance in more than one field for accurately reckoning the Vedic and Puranic chronology in terms of astronomy.
The Historical Chronology on the one hand, and the cosmological datings of Creation of the Vedas and Puranas on the other, astronomical correspond with the astronomical mahabharatas found in the The Epic. As Rishi Vyasa puts it: This turns out to be Julius Ceaser who subdued Gaul around B. Triveda, Bharateeya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay. Murthy Article in Astronomical Magazine January at p. Christian Aditi gupta and harshad chopra dating Monitor December 4, DanikenErich Von: Daniken t Erich Von: FlindtM and BinderO.
Science December 21, Nature June 26, Pacemaker of the Ice Ages. Scrutton, RobertJ.: Secrets of Lost Atland.